Monthly Archives: September 2013

대한민국 기업 가계 정부 비율 부채추이

대한민국 부채추이 표 대한민국 부채추이 그래프

.

예전 자료에서 정부부채비율을 추가해봄…

.

eXport (수출) 와 iMport (수입)을 제외한 닫힌상태의 경제 (Closed Economy)로 볼때

가계 기업 정부의 재정은 한 나라의 경제를 구성하는 모든 요소이다.

즉, 1997년 아시아 경제위기 (Asian Financial Crisis)를 기점으로 기업의 부채가 가계와 정부로 전이되고 있다는 것을 볼 수 있다.

[Country Reports] Introduction – Globalisation

The course will enable you to evaluate the economic environment at the country level.

1. Globalisation Process

  • Process of Increasing Cross-boarder trade & finance
  • Process of Increasing movements of knowledge, culture, and people across boarders
  • Process of Increasing International Governance

2. Globalisation Evidences & Indicators

2.1. Increasing Cross-Boarder Finance

  • FDI / GDP
    FDI = Foreign Direct Investment
    GDP = Gross Domestic Products
  • International Debt Securities Trends
  • Summary of International Positions – Amount Outstanding

Outward FDI PositionSource: Globalisation FDI Statistics

Intnl Debt SecuritiesSource: BIS Quarterly Review: June 2011

Intnl Positions OutstandingSource: Preliminary Report: 27 July 2011, BIS Reporting Banks

2.2. Increasing Cross-Boarder Trade

Screen Shot 2013-09-25 at 20.42.57Source: World Bank

 

2.3. Increasing movements of people across boarders

Workers remittances n compSource: World Bank

2.4. Increasing movements of knowledge

  • Number of Patents
  • Number of Citations

no USPTO patents granted

 

shares of raw citations by source

 

2.5. Increasing movements of cultures

  • The growth of the International Box Office

worldwide cinema revenuesSource: The Economist

 

.

3. Three Waves of Globalisation

3 waves of globalisation

 

Source: Collier & Dollar – Globalization Growth and Poverty

1870 ~ 1914: First wave of Globalisation

Advances in transportation and negotiated reductions of barriers opened up the possibility for some countries to use their abundant land more productively. Flows of goods capital, and labour all increased dramatically.

  • Global Income per capita rose very fast BUT number of poor people from rising rose faster
  • Widening Gaps between the globalisers and those countries left behind
    -> leading to world inequality
  • Globalisation caused incompetent economic policies and unemployment between and within countries. These factors above with nationalism drove governments into beggar-thy-neighbour protectionism.
    .
    beggar-thy-neighbour policy is an economic policy through which one country attempts to remedy its economic problems by means that tend to worsen the economic problems of other countries
  • In retrospect, we can see the period encompassing the First World War, the Great Depression, and the Second World War as a giant step backward in global economic integration

1914 ~ 1918  –  The World War I

1929 ~ 1940  –  Great Depression

1939 ~ 1945  –  The World War II

1914 ~ 1945

Protectionism had erased 80 years of globalisation progress in transportation.

  • The growth per capita fell by around a third
  • The number of poor people continued to rise
  • World inequality continued to rise

Protectionism was clearly NOT equalising

1950 ~ 1980: Second wave of Globalisation

(Focused on integration among rich countries: Europe, North America and Japan)

  • These countries concentrated on restoring trade relations through a series of multilateral trade liberalisations under the auspice of GATTs (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade).
  • During this period, most developing countries remained stuck in primary commodity exporting and were largely isolated from capital flows – In part this was due to their own inward-oriented policies
  • A group OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – International Economic Organisation of 34 countries founded in 1961 to simulate economic progress and world trade) was formed and their economies grew rapidly

1980 ~ Onwards: Third Wave of Globalisation

Globalisation due to technological advances in transport and communication technologies and by the choice of large developing countries to improve their investment climates and to open up to foreign trade and investment.

.

4. Multinational Institutions:

4.1. IMF, International Monetary Funds:

  • Main Objective: To Provide the global public good of financial stability
  • Short-term Loans to countries facing financial or currency crisis
    (EMERGENCY FUNDING) ★★
  • Raise finance by equity
    (Lend money to countries needed with interests)
  • Policy advice to governments and central banks based on analysis of economic trends and cross-country experiences
  • Concessional loans to help fight poverty in developing countries
    Concessional Loans, 양허성 차관: 일반적으로 이자율, 상환기간, 거치기간 등 3요소를 고려, 시중의 일반자금 융자와 비교하여 차입국에 유리한 조건에 의한 차관을 지칭한다. 개도국의 대한 직접차관중 증여율이 25% 이상을 상회하는 양허성 차관을 공적개발원조(ODA) 차관이라 부른다.
  • Technical Assistance and training to help countries improve the management of their economies

4.2. World Bank

  • Raises funds on world financial markets and makes low interest loans to national and regional governments for infrastructure projects to promote development
  • Receive donor funds and provide grants for improvement in health, education, environment or other social goals.

4.3. BIS, Bank for International Settlements

  • Act as a bank for central banks, holding foreign reserves and facilitating central bank transactions
  • Hosting Basel Committees on financial stability and disseminating results

4.4. Regional Development Banks

  • Development Banks fulfil same fole as World Bank BUT with regional focus
  • eg. Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank Group, European Bank, Inter-American Development Bank

4.5. OECD, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

  • Provides information sharing on policies
  • Limited membership sometimes viewed as synonymous with developed country status.

.

5. Well-known Country Reports

  • Article IV Consultation by IMF
    IMF staffs make visits to member countries, examine data, meet policymakers and officials and construct (usually annual) reports on the economic environment and how the member might conduct policy in order to increase macroeconomic stability.
  • The Economist Intelligence Unit

 

 

퇴직금 및 평균임금 산정공식

 

1. 퇴직급여보장법 제 8조 제 1항의 의거, 사용자는 계속근로년수 1년에 대하여 30일분 이상의 평균임금을 퇴직금으로서 퇴직하는 근로자에게 지급할 수 있는 제도를 설정하여야 하며, 계속글로년수는 근로계약을 체결하여 고용된 날부터 퇴직 할 때 까지의 기간을 말합니다.

2. 퇴직금 산정의 기준이 되는 평균임금은 같은 법 제 19조의 규정에 의거 이를 산정하여야 할 사유가 발생한 날 이전 3개월간에 그 근로자에 대하여 지급된 임금총액을 그 기간의 총일수로 나눈 금액을 말하며, 이러한 방법으로 산출된 평균임금액이 당해 근로자의 통상임금보다 저액을 경우에는 그 통상임금액을 평균임금으로 하여야 합니다.

– 여기서 “임금총액”은 그 3개월 동안의 근로의 대가로 지급되었거나 또는 지급사유가 발생되어 지급받아야 될 세액 공제전의 임금을 말합니다.

– “총일수”는 평균임금 산정사유발생일 이전 3월을 역으로 소급하여 계산한 기간의 일수를 말하는 것으로 월의 대소에 따라 89~92일이 됩니다.

3. 평균임금 및 퇴직금 산정방식은 다음과 같습니다.

* 평균임금
= [산정사유발생일이전 3월간의 임금총액] / [위 3개월간의 역일수(총 날짜수)]

* 퇴직금
= 평균임금 x 30일분 x [( )년 + ( )일/365]

 

출처: 대한민국 고용노동부 FAQ

연세대학교의 RC제도는 어설퍼…

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5aNvJpyG3s

 

역시 날 실망시키지 않아…ㅋㅋㅋ
.
내가 분명 RC프로그램 첫 도입초기때부터 주구장창 말해왔다…
취지는 좋으나…
뭐? 옥스브릿지나 아이비리그의 시스템을 따라한거라고…? ㅋㅋㅋ
아니 그럼 옥스브릿지처럼 컬리지별로 나눠서 면접보고 교수대 학생비율 유지하고 수업도 그래 하던가… ㅋㅋㅋ
그것도 아니고… 다큰 성인들 다니는 “大”학교에서…
영국 中, 高 등학교에서나 하는 하우스 시스템이니 뭐니 도입해서 애들 감시시키고 억지로 활동하게 하고… ㅋㅋㅋ
그렇다고 공부나 관심사적으로 애들을 묶는 것도 아니고… 무조건 다 강제로 하니… 이게 잘 돌아갈리가 있나…? ㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋ
.
나 뿐만 아니라 EIC 거쳐간 몇몇 외국인 교수님들(심저어 아이비리그 출신교수님도)도 이 말에대해선 나와 공감했다.
.
거기에다가 외출금지 ㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋ
원래 통금시간도 있는 이 학교에 외출금지…진심 생소하진 않지만 ㅋㅋㅋ
씁쓸하지… 감금도 아니고… ㅋㅋㅋㅋ 뭐 어디 갈라면 프리즌브레이크라도 찍던가
아님 가족중 누구하나 죽여야 나갈 수 있겠구먼…ㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋ